Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the InternetEvery once in awhile I feel like learning something, not just reading for the pure unadulterated enjoyment or escapism of it. After barely keeping up with my friends’ conversation about net neutrality, I decided the subject had to be the Internet. Surprisingly, there’s very few well-known books on the topic, so I settled on the (Internet-recommended) Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum.

Hilarious title aside, journalist Blum starts off just as clueless as I was. After his Internet connection is disturbed by a pesky neighborhood squirrel, he begins to think about where all those cables head off to – is there an Internet home base or it is just all blank space? Blum discovers the Internet comes and goes from multiple places, from underneath Manhattan where a new fiber optic cable is buried to the coast of Portugal where an undersea cable carries the Internet between Europe and Africa to the wilderness of the Pacific Northwest where Facebook, Microsoft, and Google all hide their massive data centers. Despite our conception of the Internet’s placelessness, it in fact lives everywhere.

A large chunk of the book is dedicated to a history of the Internet, how it evolved into the beast it is today and the people and places who birthed it. Blum meets a bevy of fascinating individuals, including the geeky network engineers who guard its monuments and act as caretakers for its services. Among the most cool to me were the Internet mappers, who trace the cables that carry signals around the world, and the folks who actually lay the cables along the ocean-floor, one instance of which Blum witnesses.

While fascinating and informative, this wasn’t among the most readable nonfiction that I’ve read. As someone who express open ignorance of technology, I admittedly found explanations of certain issues hard to understand (e.g. optical switching, TCP/IP), though Blum tries his best with highly descriptive prose. I admire his philosophical wonder at all he sees, but ultimately the Internet remains shrouded in mystery for me.

3 Stars

Advertisements

The Confidence Code by Katty Kay and Claire Shipman

The Confidence Code: The Science and Art of Self-Assurance – What Women Should KnowThe Confidence Code: The Science and Art of Self-Assurance – What Women Should Know was highly recommended to me by a feminist friend, who called it the Lean In of 2014. Successful journalists and bestselling authors of Womenomics Katty Kay and Claire Shipman explore the concept of confidence from neuroscientists’ research into its genetic coding  to psychologists’ studies on nurturing confidence in ourselves. Alongside interviews with women leaders from the worlds of politics, sports, the arts and the military, they dissect how a lack of confidence hurts our performance in all areas of our lives and how everyone can tap into this essential resource within themselves.

The most fascinating thing this book revealed for me is the balance between natural confidence and developed confidence. While some amount of confidence is pre-determined (which I was surprised to learn that geneticists can test you for), you can also boost your confidence levels, training your brain to work differently. It doesn’t happen just by positive thinking and feel-good mantras – it’s about taking risks and failing, and then picking yourself up again in the face of repeated rejection. This is a behavior men are better at, and one that is reportedly more predictive of success than competence.

Unsurprisingly, Kay and Shipman confirm that men are usually more confident than women, and suggest that generally women can improve their self-confidence by behaving more like men, though you should still being true to your authentic self – so easy! But what is interesting is that women still perceive other women (and men) as confident when those individuals don’t see themselves as confident (ex. Christine Lagarde, Angela Merkel, the authors themselves). That suggests the main obstacle to a woman owning her achievements is overcoming her negative self-delusion and replacing it with a more positive image of herself.

However, like most self-help books, this one doesn’t give much specifically applicable advice in practicing that beyond the usual spiel of meditation and self-compassion. Instead, they filled pages with endless personal anecdotes of their lives and their children’s experiences and the aunt’s second cousin’s exploits –  you get the point, which is that at points it was heavy of the fluff and light on the science. Most egregious though was the limited point-of-view it covered, that of elite, privileged women.

In sum, I don’t think it was quite as good as Carol Dweck’s Mindset, which touches on similar concepts and the authors themselves recommend, but I did prefer it to Lean In and would suggest it for women out there whose self-confidence is battered and whose self-doubt is rearing its ugly head. Maybe like me, they’ll be comforted by the knowledge that everyone struggles with low self-esteem occasionally, but it doesn’t have to be a permanent situation – you can fix it. Just act.

3 Stars

Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol S. Dweck

Mindset: The New Psychology of SuccessStanford University psychologist Carol S. Dweck’s Mindset: The New Psychology of Success defines the concept of “fixed” vs. “growth” mindsets. A fixed mindset is the belief that your qualities are set while a growth mindset believes that you can learn and improve. Apply this to intelligence, athletics, the arts (not to mention relationships and careers) and it creates a framework for which people can develop success.

Dweck’s key point is that if you develop a growth mindset, you’re more capable of dealing with and bouncing back from failures. You’re also more likely to take risks and accept constructive criticism, not just compliments. For example, in a study that gave children puzzles, the fixed mindset children chose not to try increasingly challenging puzzles because they were afraid of doing poorly. This decision was reinforced as the researcher praised the fixed-mindset group for doing well initially because their fears of being less successful at future puzzles grew. Both their motivation and their confidence declined. “If success means they’re smart, then failure means they’re dumb. That’s the fixed mindset.” Life in the growth mindset conversely would be less about the wins, though those are nice, then about the challenge, about trying to do your best at everything, and about learning from your mistakes.

This relates in some ways to Paul Tough’s How Children Succeed. What Dweck discusses as “mindset,” Tough might classify as character traits, specifically grit or perseverance. Both agree that mental resilience should be developed for success, and that it can be developed. Neither really posits effective solutions for developing it nor do they admit that just because you have the right mindset and work hard consistently, you’ll be successful at everything you do.

Moreover, I believe that Dweck overemphasizes the necessity of a growth mindset without acknowledging some innate level of talent or interest. If I was a good gardener, I may be discouraged when my trees die. That’s not totally within my control, but I can choose whether I give up or not (growth vs. fixed mindset). But that doesn’t even account for whether I want to garden or not – I know folks that have taken to gardening like ducks to water, but I am personally disinterested. Similarly, a naturally good singing voice would definitely encourage someone more than a bad voice would. Maybe they would get to the same level if the bad vocalist practiced more than the good vocalist, but talent gets you in the game. Additionally, I certainly wasn’t born with a good singing voice or a green thumb, but I don’t necessarily feel like those skills are critical to my success in life (except maybe when my boss was mad that I killed his plants) so I don’t think it matters that I have a fixed mindset in those areas.

I think I also just dislike the way self-help books are written. Dweck makes some valid points, then proceeds to bash you on the head with them every other page. I did appreciate the copious examples, but it gets awfully repetitive. The sections I cared most about related to education and career; however, she also focused several chapters on relationships familial, friendly, and romantic. So if you have the same interests in reading this as I do, I would read the first half then stop. Not that the latter half isn’t valid, it’s just less informative for where I am in my life now.

But if you like this genre, it certainly expresses a new concept in the way we conceptualize success and how to achieve it. Most excitingly, to some extent it’s adaptive so you can develop this quality in yourself, rather than just lamenting that you’re born without it, though most people are a mix. Even the ordinary people can become extraordinary…with the right mindset.

3 Stars

Sheryl Sandberg’s Lean In

Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to LeadSo I’m a little late to the game on this one. For an ardent feminist and self-described bookworm, I should have read this as soon as it came out. But I’ve read so many articles about it, for it, and against it, that by the time I finally got around to it, it felt like I already had read it.

I think that did disfavor to the book too. When it first came out, it probably seemed new and innovative, but when you attend meetings and your colleagues say “sit at the table” or you’ve heard numerous graduate school panels encourage you to speak up and take risks, it’s advice seems very overused. Same with the repetitious discussion about balancing children/family life with a career – a discussion that seems less pertinent to me as a fresh-out-of-college employee than perhaps older women, but something that the US in particular does much less well than other countries who are very supportive of maternal and paternal leave.

Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead has thrust Sheryl Sandberg into the spotlight. As a C-suiter and as a mother, all her actions are now criticized under the lens of feminist advocate. She herself throughout the book mentions that this made her hesitant to write it, though I don’t understand her misguided view of feminism and her belief that it had accomplished gender equality. Her career trajectory, and the anecdotes she mention, certainly suggest that she has a wealth of experience and knowledge about ascending up the business ladder as a women, to her current position as COO of Facebook.

Sandberg talks extensively about her own past, though she also intersperses examples from other women she knows as well as hard data. I’m glad that she acknowledged that she had privileged opportunities, including her schooling at Harvard and sponsorship by Larry Summers. (Side note: How do you get into Harvard without knowing about The Illiad and The Odyssey? In addition to her initial view on feminism, this lapse made me think that she’s a product of a different era and out-of-touch with millennials who are being educated and joining the workforce in a very different climate than when she grew up.) She also is white and wealthy, which affords her additional privileges that I’d imagine would be out of reach for many American women.

I certainly agree that there are not enough women in leadership in business or government. Take the recent Supreme Court decision about birth control – no matter what side of the issue you’re on, it’s telling if all the women consistently vote one way on these issues and the majority of men take the opposite view. Men have to be taught that it’s okay not to be the bread-winner, that it’s valid to be a stay-at-home dad, that current restrictions on women’s rights by government and companies effect them negatively too.

This is where I have a problem. I think women have proven to be very effective in leadership positions, and if women want to lead, then they should be able to. But not all women want to lead like not all men do. And that’s an equally valid choice. If women are hanging back from leadership roles because they don’t have the self-confidence to go for them, that’s an issue we need to resolve by educating girls from a young age that they have the potential to do whatever they will; however, I know plenty of people who are content with their positions – they can be heard when they want but they’re also happy to sit back and get work done quietly and efficiently. In sum, it’s a bit of an all-encompassing human issue when not all people are aggressively determined to rise to the top but society expects that drive from them and looks down at those who choose differently.

As I mentioned, I had heard this all before as have many other women I know. Now I need the tools to build that confidence, to push and challenge myself, to determine my goals and accomplish them instead of sabotaging myself. Maybe this is why Sandberg is so big on mentorship, but most of this development needs to come from within and I haven’t yet read any persuasive and effective material on how to self-improve in that way – definitely not from her self-promoting, pseudo-empowering website. That’s just personally – we also need more quality solutions as a community to incite structural and cultural reform.

Perhaps that can be Sandberg’s next book. She may have made Facebook work around her as did Melissa Mayer at Yahoo, but overall offered no comprehensive solutions to better women’s labor conditions at large. I applaud her for launching this conversation, but don’t think she has made substantive contributions to change.

3 Stars

Quiet by Susan Cain

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop TalkingUgh, it’s that dreaded time of the year again – was my thought every day I trudged into work last month. June marks my employer’s, and many other organizations’, employee review period. In addition to the stress of closing the fiscal year, we get the added bonus of battling with a archaic website to write up our self-appraisals, before struggling through a seemingly-endless series of interviews and other additional hoops to get our year-end ratings.

If you’re like me, a shy introvert with mild social anxiety, this process is the worst. I hate talking about myself and I warned my manager in advance that I may break into tears (to his consternation). Luckily I have a good enough relationship with him that my awkwardness didn’t totally wreck our meeting, but he and several other mentors suggested that I read Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking  in order to build self confidence and utilize my personality strengths to overcome my flaws.

Well, I can’t say that this book is helping me do that. Susan Cain, a self-confessed introvert herself, clearly has done a lot of research into the differences between introverts and extroverts, from speaking to scientists about their research to attending motivational conferences to sharing anecdotes from individuals all over the spectrum. Unfortunately her main conclusion seems to be that America today is a place where extroversion is valued and introverts just have to learn how to deal with it. Alternatively, the option is to seek those friend groups, companies, and/or countries where introversion is more valued.

While she does point to some positive traits that introverts can utilize, such as sensitivity/empathy and level-headedness/caution, her principal advice was to be pseudo-extroverted. She speaks to many introverts who pretend on some level to be extroverted in order to get ahead in their careers and relationships, and who are sad and frustrated that they have to fake it in order to make it. To some extent, many introverts do this already – I know several friends and colleagues who have said that they imagine me to be more extroverted than I think I am. Which is probably the plus side of this book – Cain accurately points out that a lot can be overcome if we ignore our self-perception. For example, in a public speaking class, you feel your legs quivering and your cheeks heating up as you get flustered in front of the audience, but most of the audience won’t even notice the tells that you’re nervous.

I would recommend this book to introverts because it is a fascinating read, but I honestly think it will have more power if extroverts, especially at the managerial level, read it so they know how to relate better to their introverted employees. Cain is absolutely correct that introverts have positive contributions to make to society but that we often get lost in the hubbub.

This text is only valuable as a self-help book for parents trying to guide introverted kids. As an adult without children, I couldn’t utilize many of the tips she gave, but I sure did wish my parents and teachers had read this earlier.

3.5 Stars

Note: It could have been 4 stars if my expectations of guidance and wisdom didn’t conflict with the actuality of the text. I came to it to learn, and failed to learn what I desired – not necessarily a fault of the author perhaps, but of the marketing and recommendations I’d received.