William Shirer’s The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi GermanyWilliam L. Shirer was serving as as one of the only CBS news correspondents in Western Europe in the 1930s and 1940s, located at the perfect place and time to witness firsthand the growth and eventual domination of the Nazis. Reporting from Vienna during the Austrian Anschluss and from Berlin during the early years of World War II, he eventually learned that the Gestapo was gathering evidence of his disobedience over censorship and fled the country, not to return until the Nuremberg trials. Afterwards, back in America and barely a decade after the war’s conclusion, he wrote The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. 

Shirer begins at the beginning, the seeds that were sown following Germany’s defeat in World War I. Then, he traces the birth of Adolf Hitler, the creation of his philosophy as memorialized in Mein Kampf, and the establishment of the Nazi Party. Thus, its more than halfway in before we even get to war, but that development is essential to understand the individuals and events that led to its inevitability. By now, plenty of books have been written about the war itself, but Shirer’s has a unique level of detail and blend of contemporary citations with personal observances.

It wasn’t the easiest read with copious footnotes taking sometimes up to half the page. While I flew through the first 700 pages, the last few hundred took weeks. Partially because it finally touched on the Holocaust, a topic that isn’t covered extensively as much as foreshadowed for much of the book, but one that is deeply disturbing to read about so matter-of-factly. Nor does Shirer linger much on the aftermath of the war, probably because his book followed freshly on the heels of it and hasn’t been updated since published in 1960. In this case, that limit on scope is likely for the best.

I hope to read Shirer’s biography next. It’ll be interesting to get a different perspective on his work and biases as well as read further excerpts from his Berlin Diary, published during the war in 1941. For instance, from Rise and Fall, I already know that he’s at least slightly homophobic. Perhaps a product of his time, but I’d caution sensitive readers to be aware that he repeatedly remarks that homosexuality is a perversion, though obviously not to the extent of supporting Nazi persecution.

Regardless of Shirer’s own views, he did write the definitive work on Nazi Germany. Even to this day, I couldn’t find a more thorough source. For those readers interested in WWII history, this is a must read, but one that should be expected to take awhile.

4 Stars

 

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War of the Whales by Joshua Horwitz

War of the Whales: A True StoryIt seems this blog was successful in influencing me to branch out to new genres. I ordinarily would never read something so sciencey but I saw this one on a friend’s shelf and thought, why not? And I’m very glad I did.

Joshua Horwitz’s War of the Whales chronicles the mass strandings of various whale subspecies due to the Navy’s use of deep-water sonar and the fight to enact new legislation protecting the oceans against violent intrusion from military activities. In the summer of 2000, Marine photographer and ex-Navy officer Ken Balcomb thought it was just another day of whale-spotting with his Earthwatch volunteers in the Bahamas until he finds a beached Curvier’s beaked whale outside his house. Within 24 hours, numerous other whales are spotted grounded ashore, with many of them unable to survive the experience. Calling on fellow biologists, like Bob Gisner of the Office of Naval Research and Darlene Ketten, a renowned whale hearing expert, as well as the Internet community, he attempts to find the reason behind this strange occurrence.

Coming to find himself stymied by the government and with a suspicious naval destroyer doing highly classified testing in the area, Balcomb’s experience leads him to the conclusion that the Navy’s sonar testing frightened and disoriented the whales by causing their eardrums to hemorrhage so that they headed towards shore accidentally. Similar incidents occurred after NATO naval tests off the coast of Greece and after the Spanish navy conducted exercises by the Canary Islands. Although he felt guilty about betraying his fellow soldiers, Balcomb eventually decides to expose the Navy’s role in multiple instances of whale deaths with the aid of attorney Joel Reynolds from the Natural Resources Defense Council, spurring a halfhearted government investigation and eventual Supreme Court case. (Spoiler: They lose in the court of law but win in the court of public opinion.)

Horwitz excels at making his cast come alive as distinctly human individuals. Although the government and military are meant to be the bad guys, with the Navy being the chief villain and fisheries being their minions, he provides compelling reasons for their actions, primarily in the interests of self-protection and national security that do have to be balanced against environmental protection. Neither Reynolds nor Balcomb are perfect either, see their numerous failed relationships as evidence, but their passion and dogged persistence for their beliefs outweighs other character flaws in this context. I’m sure none of these individuals appreciated seeing their actions (or inactions) dragged into the public eye, but at least Horwitz makes them all understandable to the reader.

He is also incredibly good at clarifying the often murky and complicated scientific and legal facts that are crucial to this story. From the anatomy of a whale’s head to the process of training dolphins to detect bombs to the complexity of filing a Supreme Court case, he manages to explain things clearly and in a way that doesn’t feel like a dry footnote. This book could’ve easily been textbook boring, but instead it is an approachable and engaging read.

Unfortunately the sad part is that despite the recent attention Save the Whales campaigns have received, it’s still hard to enforce what little legislation exists both in the US and worldwide. As Horwitz explained, the premier marine biologists are all dependent on the government and military for funding, so are often reluctant to stand up for the environment. While the awareness of noise pollution in the oceans in greater, there’s still a lot we don’t know about how human activity affects marine life, and how to balance between the two.

However, this book is a perfect launching point for learning and discussing these issues. It was definitely one of the best-written non-fiction books I’ve read, especially on such a timely topic with connections from the documentary “Blackfish” to military power/responsibility in a post-9/11 era.

5 Stars

Happy 4th of July! Best Independence Day Books

Happy 4th of July! 

Independence Day is my 2nd favorite holiday (following Halloween!). In spite of all the problems America and Americans face today, there’s something astounding in the fact that we’ve managed to keep it together this long – after all, most countries fall apart much quicker. And a small group of presentient old men made it happen.

In honor of our Founding Fathers, who placed a high value on literacy and education, here are my four favorite books about the Revolutionary War:

Nonfiction

Bunker Hill: A City, a Siege, a Revolution

Bunker Hill: A City, A Siege, A Revolution by Nathaniel Filbrick

Filbrick vividly captures the hope and the terror of 1775 Boston in the aftermath of the Boston Tea Party. Overwhelmed by British soldiers, rising tensions between Loyalists and Patriots lead to one of the bloodiest and most famous battles of the revolution, the Battle of Bunker Hill.

 

Revolutionary Summer: The Birth of American IndependenceRevolutionary Summer: The Birth of American Independence by Joseph J. Ellis

Renowned American historian Joseph Ellis reveals the political and military actions that resulted in the Declaration of Independence. He deftly details the decisions of the Continental Congress and the Continental Army, and how they embarked on a path to independence.

 

Fiction

April MorningApril Morning by Howard Fast

I read this novel in high school for my AP US History course and still recall how gripping this tale of the Battle at Lexington was. A pivotal battle in history and a pivotal read for any historical fiction enthusiasts.

 

 

My Brother Sam Is DeadMy Brother Sam is Dead by James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier

There are some great children’s books about the Revolution, notably Felicity in the American Girl series, but I think this is the best. It’s a heart-wrenching tale of familial strain amidst a country in turmoil, and does an excellent job of introducing young readers to the heart and mind of the struggle for freedom.